What is a Spike Protein?

The spike protein of SARS-CoV-2, the virus responsible for COVID-19, is a crucial component that facilitates the virus’s entry into human cells. Discover how you can eliminate the spiked protein easily and for free at the bottom of this article. and This spike protein is also known as the S protein. Understanding its structure and function has been vital in the development of vaccines and antiviral therapies.

The spike protein is a glycoprotein, meaning it is a protein with attached sugar molecules. This glycosylation is important for the protein’s stability and function.

The spike protein is located on the surface of the virus particle, forming distinctive protrusions that give the virus its characteristic “crown” or “corona” appearance under a microscope.

The primary function of the spike protein is to facilitate the entry of the virus into host cells. It achieves this by binding to a specific receptor on the surface of human cells.

The receptor for the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein is the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), which is present on the surface of certain human cells, especially in the respiratory system.

The entry of SARS-CoV-2 into human cells involves several steps. The spike protein undergoes a conformational change upon binding to the ACE2 receptor, allowing the virus to fuse with the host cell membrane. Once fusion occurs, the viral genetic material (RNA) is released into the host cell, initiating the infection process[i].

Variants of SARS-CoV-2, which have emerged over time, can carry mutations in the spike protein. Some mutations may impact the virus’s transmissibility, severity, or the effectiveness of vaccines[ii].

Interview on How to Eliminate, or Reduce Graphene Oxide


[i] Jackson CB, Farzan M, Chen B, Choe H. Mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 entry into cells. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2022 Jan;23(1):3-20. doi: 10.1038/s41580-021-00418-x. Epub 2021 Oct 5. PMID: 34611326; PMCID: PMC8491763.
[ii] Harvey WT, Carabelli AM, Jackson B, Gupta RK, Thomson EC, Harrison EM, Ludden C, Reeve R, Rambaut A; COVID-19 Genomics UK (COG-UK) Consortium; Peacock SJ, Robertson DL. SARS-CoV-2 variants, spike mutations and immune escape. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2021 Jul;19(7):409-424. doi: 10.1038/s41579-021-00573-0. Epub 2021 Jun 1. PMID: 34075212; PMCID: PMC8167834.